Knee Osteoarthritis, is wear and tear from degenerative joint disease – wearing and destroying the joint’s cartilage. It particularly occurs in patients who are over 50 years of age, but can occur earlier, especially with previous sports or traumatic injuries. Being overweight tends to exacerbate the symptoms of arthritis and weight loss can help with this. There also appears to be a genetic predisposition, and arthritis and knee pain tend to run in families. Previous trauma, such as meniscal tears, ligament damage or prior fractures, all predisposed to having knee arthritis and chronic knee pain.
Knee ligament injuries such as an anterior cruciate ligament can be painful and debilitating. Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect the bones in your body. Two important ligaments in the knee, the ACL and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), connect the femur or thigh bone with the tibia, one of the bones of the lower leg. But too much stress on these ligaments can cause them to stretch too far or even snap.
Knee ligament injuries injuries can be caused by:
Twisting your knee with the foot planted.
Getting hit on the knee.
Extending the knee too far.
Jumping and landing on a flexed knee.
Stopping suddenly when running.
Suddenly shifting weight from one leg to the other.
These injuries are common in soccer players, football players, basketball players, skiers, gymnasts, and other athletes.
Knee Torn Meniscus (cartilage)
Knee Bursitis is the inflammation of the bursa. The bursa is a sac filled with lubricating fluid, located between the tissues such as bone, muscle, tendons and skin, that decreases rubbing, friction, and irritation. Bursitis is most often caused by repetitive, minor impact on the knee area, or from a sudden, more serious injury. Age can also play a role. As tendons age they are able to tolerate stress less, are less elastic, and are easier to tear.
Injury or overuse to the joint can also increase a person’s risk of bursitis. Examples can include gardening, raking, carpentry, shoveling, painting, scrubbing, tennis, golf, skiing, throwing, and pitching. Incorrect posture at work or home and poor stretching or conditioning before exercise can also lead to bursitis.
Synovial plica syndrome, is a condition of irritation of the tissue that is the inner lining of the knee joint. Synovium is a type of tissue that surrounds a joint. The synovial tissue contains the joint space and helps to make the normal fluid that lubricates the joint. The synovial plica are membranes that separate the knee into compartments during fetal development. These plica normally shink in size during the second trimester of fetal development. In adults, they exist as sleeves of tissue called synovial folds, or plica. In some individuals, the synovial plica is more prominent and prone to irritation.
Degenerative knee joint disease, is due to the loss of articular cartilage within your joints. The articular cartilage is the cushioning that is on the ends of our bones. When we mature or finish growing, that cartilage is fairly thick, it is firm and rubbery, smoother than glass. For many reasons we start to loose the cartilage, or we may suffer an injury which will cause us to loose our cartilage.
The causes of degenerative knee joint disease are numerous, some of the more common causes are:
Knee Avascular Necrosis can be a debilitating progressive disease of the knee in which the subchondral bone loses vascular supply and a portion of the bone dies. This can lead to subchondral collapse resulting in severely erosive degenerative arthritis.